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Stomach Cancer: Prevention, Endoscopic treatment & surgical

 

Gastric cancer can be divided into early gastric cancer and progressive gastric cancer.

In early stage gastric cancer, the cancerous tissue is limited to the mucosal layer or submucosal layer, regardless of the presence of lymph node metastasis. Progressive gastric cancer is deeper than the submucosal layer, and those invading the muscular layer are called intermediate gastric cancer, and those invading the plasma membrane or extra-plasma membrane tissue are called advanced gastric cancer. Most early gastric cancers have good prognosis and most of them can be cured, with a 5-year survival rate of over 90%. However, the median survival period of progressive gastric cancer rarely exceeds 12 months after comprehensive surgical treatment due to local recurrence and distant metastasis, and the 5-year survival rate is less than 10%. Thus, increasing the early diagnosis rate of gastric cancer is the key to improving the prognosis of gastric cancer.

How to prevent gastric cancer?

Maintain good dietary habits

Develop good eating habits, eat regularly and quantitatively, eat less or no pickles and fried foods, and eat more fresh vegetables and fruits. Most people’s stomach diseases are caused by diet. To prevent stomach cancer, you have to control your mouth well beforehand. Your diet should not be too salty and eat less smoked food. You should quit smoking and drink less strong alcohol. Alcohol can destroy the gastric mucosal barrier, and the incidence of stomach cancer can be several times of that of non-drinkers. Try to eat regularly, less hot and hard food and binge eating.

Pay attention to the underlying diseases of the stomach

You should be highly alert to any diseases that may be malignant such as chronic gastric ulcer, atrophic gastritis, gastric polyp, etc. All kinds of chronic gastric diseases should be treated systematically. Symptom remission should not be taken as a sign of cure, let alone halfway through treatment. patients with chronic gastric diseases over 40 years of age should be more vigilant and follow up promptly and regularly as required by their doctors, preferably by establishing follow-up contact with the hospital.

Seek medical attention promptly when relevant symptoms appear

When blood in stool, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, epigastric pain and discomfort, epigastric lumps, etc. occur, or when the effect of medication is not good, as well as when anemia, weakness and weight loss occur, you should go to hospital for examination in time to exclude gastric cancer.

As a common gastrointestinal tumor, several studies have proved that the 5-year survival rate of early gastric cancer is significantly higher than that of progressive gastric cancer, suggesting that the treatment of early gastric cancer is significant. The following are the main methods of early gastric cancer treatment.

Endoscopic treatment:

Mainly includes endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), etc. These treatments are mainly done through gastrointestinal endoscopy, which are less invasive, less invasive and less risky, and can be used for patients with high surgical risk or those who refuse surgical treatment; the disadvantage is that these treatments may not be able to completely remove the pathological specimens and clear the surrounding lymph nodes, thus having a high probability of recurrence. The disadvantage is that this treatment method may not be able to remove the pathological specimen completely and to clear the surrounding lymph nodes, thus having a high probability of recurrence.

Surgery:

In the United States, the Netherlands and other western countries, surgery is the standard treatment for early gastric cancer, and more than 90% of patients with early gastric cancer are treated by surgical resection. For patients with early gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis, surgery is almost the only feasible treatment. Surgical procedures have a high rate of complete resection of the mass, but there are relatively more surgical complications. In recent years, with the rise of laparoscopic surgery, its application in early gastric cancer that may have lymph node involvement has increased. This type of surgery helps the rapid recovery of intestinal function after surgery, but the operation time is relatively long and requires a high level of operator skill.

The incidence of recurrence and distant metastasis after surgery for early gastric cancer is low, and postoperative chemotherapy is generally not required. However, patients with early gastric cancer with perigastric lymph node metastasis are recommended to receive additional chemotherapy because of the high incidence of postoperative recurrence and distant metastasis.


Post time: May-06-2022